ITT Envir. Sci. SeptQ Final Exam Q&A Review w/ Answers in Bold

Course SC4730, Visualizing Environmental Science, Berg Text Book Ref.:Chapters 1 thru 18



Chapter  1 –  Environmental  Issues


1)      Which of the following is not included in sustainable human activities or behaviors?


                   2) What is an example of sustainable consumption?



3) Nonrenewable resource is to renewable resource as   _________ is to __________?


4) Environmental sustainability does not imply ______________________?



Chapter  2  –  Sustainability Concepts


1) Environmental justice is reflected in ______________________?



2) Why is the deep ecology worldview impractical for widespread adoption?


3)      Why is it difficult to attain environmental sustainability based on the Western worldview?


5)      Which of the following statements reflects the Western worldview?


            5) Which of the following is not associated with poverty?

          Low life expectancy


          Inadequate access to health care



7)      For a country to progress from a less-developed country to a more-developed country, the country would have to_______________?


           7) Which of the following is key to the elimination of world poverty and stabilizing global population?


          Pollution Control




Chapter 3 Environmental History


1)      The sensible and careful management of natural resources is called:  


2) Setting aside undisturbed areas, maintaining them in a pristine state, and protecting them from human activities that might   alter their “natural” state is referred to as:  

3) The desire to conquer nature and put its resources to use in the most lucrative manner possible is called:

4) The following people all contributed to our understanding of the environment. Which one was the first head of the U.S.     Forest Service and supported expanding the nation’s forest reserves?

  5) The Yosemite and Sequoia national parks were established, largely in response to the efforts of naturalist: 

6) What contribution to our understanding of the environment did Wallace Stegner provide?

7) When did many U.S. naturalists first become concerned about conserving natural resources?   during

8) A person who values natural resources because of their usefulness to us, but uses them sensibly and carefully is called a(n):

               9) A person who believes in protecting nature because all forms of life deserve respect and consideration is called a(n):


10) Why is the National Environmental Policy Act the cornerstone of U.S. environmental law?


11) How do environmental impact statements (EISs) provide such powerful protection of the environment?

a) they must thoroughly analyze the environmental consequences of anticipated projects on soil, water, and organisms

b) they must include possible alternatives to the proposed action that would create fewer adverse environmental effects

c) they provide for public scrutiny


12) Which of the following terms describes the process of evaluating and presenting to decision makers the relative benefits      and costs of various alternatives?


13) The figure below illustrates how economics depend on natural capital for sources of raw materials and sinks for waste products. Sinks are associated with the end of the process, which occurs after which step?

14) Why are national income accounts incomplete estimates of national economic performance?
1. they don’t take into     account natural resource depletion
2. they don’t take into account the cost and benefits of pollution control
3. none of these


15) Pollution control laws that work by setting limits on levels of pollution are referred to as:


Chapter 4 Environmental Health


1) The probability of harm occurring under certain circumstances is referred to as:

2) How does risk assessment help determine adverse health effects?

a) it determines the probability of harm occurring under certain circumstances

b) it helps determine whether we should reduce or eliminate a particular risk and, if so, what we should do

c) it helps estimate the probability that an event will occur and lets us set priorities and manage risks in an appropriate way


3) The study of chemicals with adverse effects on health is referred to as:


4) Which of the following statements about chronic toxicity are correct?


5) Which of the following terms refers to an agent (usually a microorganism) that causes disease?


6) A scientist who investigates the outbreaks of both infectious and noninfectious diseases in a population is referred to as        a(n):


7) How is the incidence of disease related to human activities that alter the environment?

a) development activities may bring more humans into contact with new or rare disease-causing agents

b) the disruption of natural environments may give disease-causing agents an opportunity to thrive

c) development projects may increase the population and distribution of disease-carrying organisms, thereby increasing the    spread of disease

8) Mercury is a substance that is extremely stable and may take many years to break down into a less toxic form. This is an example of:


9) A group of persistent toxicants that bioaccumulate in organisms, and travel thousands of kilometers through air and water     and contaminate sites far removed from their source are called:


10) What is the purpose of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants?


11) In toxicology, what is a graph called that shows the effect of different doses on a population of test organisms, and is         used     to determine the health effects of environmental pollutants?


12) Any substance (chemical, radiation, or virus) that causes cancer is called a:


13) Which of the following chemicals will have a highest LD50?

                         aspirin, caffeine

14) When the effect of a chemical mixture is exactly what you would expect given the individual effects of each component        of the mixture, then the mixture is said to be:


15) Why are children particularly susceptible to toxicants?

a) children have higher metabolic rates than adults

b) children are still growing and developing

c) children weigh less than adults


Chapter 5 Ecology

1.      Which of the following terms describes the study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their abiotic environment?

                Ecology,  environment, population, biophere


2.      Which of the following terms best describe a region that includes several interacting ecosystems?

a) landscape


c) community

d) population


3.      Which of the following ecological levels is the most inclusive?

a) ecosystem


c) community 

d) population


4.      Photosynthesis, where plants absorb the radiant energy of the sun and convert it to the chemical energy contained in      the bonds of sugar molecules without creating or destroying the energy itself, is an example of this law.


An automobile engine, which converts the chemical energy of gasoline to mechanical energy, is between 20 and 30 percent efficient.  In other words, only 20 to 30 percent of the original energy stored in the chemical bonds of the   gasoline molecules is actually transformed into mechanical energy, or work.  This is an example of:


5.      Which of the following organisms in the picture below is an herbivore, or primary consumer???


b) the Madagascar day gecko in panel B

c) the crab in panel C

d) the mushrooms in panel D


6.      Organisms like bacteria and fungi that break down dead organisms and waste products are called:


How does energy flow through a food chain or food web?


Bacteria are the only organisms involved in each of the following steps except for which one?

a) nitrogen fixation

b) nitrification

c) assimilation

d) ammonification

e) denitrification




7.      Which cycle does not have an atmospheric component?

a) nitrogen cycle

   phosphorus cycle

c) sulfur cycle

d) carbon cycle


8.      How is carbon returned to the atmosphere in the reverse process of photosynthesis?


9.      Which of the following factors contribute to an organism’s ecological niche?

a) physical

b) chemical

c) biological



10.  A scientific study of five American warbler species revealed that individuals of each species spend most of their     feeding time in different portions of spruces and other conifer trees.  This is a Courseic example of ___________.



11.  The acacia ant in the picture below gains shelter and nutrients from the acacia plant.  In turn, it protects the plant         from predators.  This is an example of ___________.

12.  Which of the following statements about symbiotic relationships is true?

a) commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit

b) in parasitism one organism benefits at the expense of another

c) in mutualism one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped

d) both organisms benefit in parasitism


Chapter 6 Ecosystems

1.      Which of the following terms describes a large, relatively distinct terrestrial region with similar climate, soil, plants,     and animals regardless of where it occurs in the world?

a) boundary

b) ecosystem

               d) habitat


2.      The treeless biome in the far north that has harsh, very cold winters and extremely short summers, and consists of     boggy plains covered by lichens and small plants such as mosses is called a ___________.



3.      Which of the following is a region of coniferous forest in the Northern Hemisphere, located just south of the tundra?

a) tropical rain forest

               c) temperate deciduous forest

d) temperate rain forest


4.      A biome found in both temperate and tropical regions in which the lack of precipitation limits plant growth is         referred     to as a _____________.


5.      How do you distinguish between temperate rain forest and tropical rain forest?

6.      Important environmental factors of aquatic ecosystems include:

a) salinity

b) amount of dissolved oxygen

c) availability of light for photosynthesis


Large, strong swimming organisms (ex: turtles and fish) are referred to as __________ in an aquatic ecosystem

                How does a freshwater wetland differ from an estuary?



7.      Zonation characterizes standing-water ecosystems, such as lakes and ponds. In a lake, what is the limnetic zone?

                 The mangrove forest in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, is an example of what? 



8.      What is the term for aquatic organisms that are usually small or microscopic, and tend to drift or swim feebly and          are carried about at the mercy of currents and waves?


9.      Floating aquatic organisms that photosynthesize must remain near the water’s surface, and vegetation anchored to        lake floors or streambeds will only grow in relatively shallow water. Why?



10.  Which of the following are ecosystem services of salt marshes and mangrove swamps?

a) trapping sediment and pollution

b) supplying groundwater

c) breeding grounds and nurseries for important fishes

                    The cumulative genetic changes in populations that occur during successive generations are referred to as:


Chapter 7 Population


1. The branch of biology that deals with the number of individuals of a particular species found in an area, and how and            why those numbers increase or decrease over time is called:


2.  Which of the following terms refers to the maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions?


3.  Which of the following terms refers to the largest population a particular environment can support sustainably (long term) assuming there are no changes in that environment?

a) sustainable population

b) biotic potential

c) maximum population


4. Which of the following statements about the history of human population growth is correct?

a) The death rate has increased significantly over the past few years

b) The population will never reach zero population growth.

c) The United Nations predicts the population will reach 4 billion by the year 2013.

d) It took thousands of years for the human population to reach one billion (around 1800).


5.  What is the current human world population (as of 2007)?


6.  Why is it impossible to precisely determine the earth’s carrying capacity for humans?

a) it is difficult to make assumptions about standards of living and resource consumption

b) we don’t know what technological innovations may exist in the future

c) we don’t know if our increased food production is sustainable


7.  The applied branch of sociology that deals with population statistics is referred to as:


8. Which of the following statements about human population is false?

a) Worldwide, the total fertility rate is well above the replacement level.


c) Highly developed countries have the lowest birth rates in the world.

d) Less developed countries have the shortest life expectancies.


9.  Why is the replacement-level fertility usually given as 2.1 children instead of 2.0 children?


b) most couples have more than two children

c) 2.1 represents the average number of children a couple produces  

d) people live longer and birth rates exceed death rates


10.  Which of the following is the single most important factor affecting high total fertility rate?

a) high infant and child mortality rates

c) low status of women in many societies

d) important economic and societal roles of children in some cultures


11. How does education of women decrease the total fertility rate?

a) by delaying the first childbirth

b) by increasing the likelihood women will know how to control their fertility

c) by increasing women’s career options which provide ways of achieving status besides having babies


12. What is the relationship between fertility rates and marriage age?


13. Which of the following statements about human population is correct?

a) In general, women who don’t follow any religion have the highest total fertility rates.

                           c) Family planning usually increases fertility rates.

d) Increasing the death rate is an acceptable way of regulating population size.


14.  The process whereby people move from rural areas to densely populated cities is called:


15. What are some of the problems caused by rapid urban growth in developing countries?

a) limited capability to provide basic services

b) substandard housing

c) high unemployment


Chapter 8 Air Pollution

1. The gaseous envelope surrounding Earth is referred to as the:


2. What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?

3. Most clouds occur in the layer of the atmosphere closest to Earth’s surface called the:

                           4. The layer of the atmosphere that has no turbulence and where commercial jets fly is called the:

5. Various chemicals (gases, liquids, or solids) present in the atmosphere in high enough levels to harm humans,                      other organisms, or materials, are referred to as:


6.  Particulate matter is an example of:


7.  What kind of gases are associated with acid deposition, corrode metals and damage stone and other materials?


8. Which of the following pollutants is formed in the atmosphere as a secondary pollutant?


9.  Which of the following conditions is a temperature inversion?

a) local heat buildup in an area of high population

b) cold air layered over warm air

                            d) a dome of heated air that surrounds an urban area with pollution


10. Industrial smog refers to what form of traditional air pollution?


11. Heat from human activities such as fuel combustion is highly concentrated in cities. As a result, the air in these areas        form:


12.  Which of the following are adverse health effects of air pollutants?

a) eye irritation

b) inflammation of the respiratory tract

c) increasing susceptibility to infection


13. Who oversees the Clean Air Act?



14. Which of the following statements about air pollution is false?

a) Many cities and towns in China have so many smokestacks belching coal smoke that residents only see the sun a few        weeks of the year.

b) Lead pollution from heavily leaded gasoline is an especially serious problem in developing nations.


d) Respiratory disease is now the leading cause of death for children worldwide.


15.  As developing nations become more industrialized, what is the effect on air quality?


Chapter 9 Atmosphere and Climate


1. Which of the following statements about climate and weather is correct?

a) Weather refers to the conditions that occur in a place over a period of years and climate refers to the conditions in the atmosphere at a given place and time.


at a given place and time.

c) Climate can change from one hour to the next and from one day to the next whereas weather changes slowly, over          hundreds or thousands of years.

d) None of these statements are correct.


2. What are the two most important factors that determine an area’s overall climate?


3. Based on the diagram below, approximately how much solar radiation is absorbed by Earth’s land, water, and          atmosphere?



4. Which characteristic of Earth causes the seasons?

5. What are the reasons for regional precipitation differences?

a) the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere

b) geographic location

c) topographic features


6. What are the five main greenhouse gases?



7. Which of the following is a way to mitigate global warming?

a) development of alternatives to fossil fuels

b) controlling the human population

c) planting and maintaining forests


9.Which of the following is a potential effect of global warming?

b) weather patterns will become more predictable

c) mosquitoes and other disease carriers could become extinct

d) precipitation patterns will become more stable


10. What is the importance of the stratospheric ozone layer?


11. The picture below is a computer-generated image of part of the Southern Hemisphere. What does the purple area over Antarctica represent???

a) acid deposition

c) global warming

d) precipitation


12. What are the primary chemicals responsible for ozone thinning in the stratosphere?


13.  Which of the following are harmful effects on human due to stratospheric ozone depletion?


14. The Montreal Protocol resulted in an international agreement to:


15.  Which of the following terms refers to a type of air pollution that includes sulfuric and nitric acids in precipitation                 as well as dry acid particles that settle out of the air?



Chapter 10 Water Resources


1. Which of the following results in a balance of the water resources in the ocean, on the land, and in the atmosphere?


2. The figure below shows that excess water seeps downward through soil and porous rock layers until it reaches impermeable rock or clay and is stored in either contained or uncontained aquifers. What is this water called?


3. How do hydrogen bonds form between adjacent water molecules?

                                the negative (oxygen) end of one water molecule is attracted to the positive (hydrogen) end of another water molecule, forming a bond between the two molecules


4. What unique property of water allows the ocean to have a moderating influence on climate, particularly along coastal areas?


5. What problem(s) are associated with aquifer depletion?

a) it lowers the water table

b) saltwater intrusion occurs along coastal areas when groundwater is depleted faster than it recharges

c) aquifer depletion from porous sediments causes subsidence, or sinking, of the land above it


6. Which statement about the Ogallala Aquifer is false?

a) the aquifer underlies eight states in the US

b) in some areas farmers are drawing water from the Aquifer 40 times faster than nature can replace it

c) the aquifer is the largest groundwater deposit in the world


7.  What issue(s) surround water problems of the Colorado River basin?

a) a treaty in 1922 called the Colorado River Compact, overestimated the average annual flow and locked that estimate into a multistate agreement

b) population growth in the upper Colorado region threatens the lower Colorado region’s water supply

c) the lower Colorado becomes increasingly salty as it flows toward Mexico


8. How does international cooperation affect shared water resources?


9. The wise use of water resources, without harming the essential functioning of the hydrologic cycle or the ecosystems on which humans depend is called:

                         10. Dams are major generators of inexpensive hydroelectric power; however, dams have negative impacts such as:


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